the degree of recycling of nutrients within coral-reef communities is extreme. It is estimated that the annual gross primary productivity of reefs oscillates around 2-3%. Some 75% of this net system yield is unusable by humans, whereas another 15% accumulates in reef structures. The remaining 10% (0.02-0,03% of the former) is usable secondary production. Of this much is algae and invertebrates;
p.416; in ....
Birkeland C.; 1997; Geographic Differences in Ecological Processes on Coral Reefs; in Birkeland C. (ed.); Life and Death of Coral Reefs; Chapman and Hall London - UK;