as a result of nutrient enrichment in the northern Gulf of Aqaba / Eilat phytoplankton multiples rapidly (can double every 1-2 days), is eaten by zooplankton and the latter is preyed upon by fish. By passing these nutrients on to higher trophic levels in the food chain they become distributed over wide areas, while any surplus of nutrients is accumulating in the depths and the seafloor of the northern Gulf. This is especially troublesome as during winter, cold surface waters sink to deeper layers creating vertical mixing and thereby “pumping” nutrient-rich waters to the surface, resulting in an other “algal bloom”. Vertical mixing during the 1992 winter resulted in excessive eutrophication of the upper illuminated reef layers, generating wide-scale algal blooms which killed 25% of the corals in Eilat;
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Loya Y., 2004; The Coral Reefs of Eilat – Past, Present and Future; in Rosenberg E., Loya Y. (eds); Coral Health and Disease; Springer Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg - FRG;

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